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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
LEO TOLSTOY, 18281910

COUNT LEO NIKOLAYEVICH TOLSTOY was born
August 28, 1828, at the family estate of Yasna-
ya Polyana, in the province of Tula. His moth-
er died when he was three and his father six
years later. Placed in the care of his aunts, he
passed many of his early years at Kazan, where,
in 1844, after a preliminary training by French
tutors, he entered the university. He cared lit-
tle for the university and in 1847 withdrew be-
cause of "ill-health and domestic circum-
stances." He had, however, done a great deal
of reading, of French, English, and Russian
novels, the New Testament, Voltaire, and
Hegel. The author exercising the greatest in-
fluence upon him at this time was Rousseau;
he read his complete works and for sometime
wore about his neck a medallion of Rousseau.

Immediately upon leaving the university,
Tolstoy returned to his estate and, perhaps inr
spired by his enthusiasm for Rousseau, pre-
pared to devote himself to agriculture and to
improving the condition of his serfs. His first
attempt at social reform proved disappointing,
and after six months he withdrew to Moscow
and St. Petersburg, where he gave himself over
to the irregular life characteristic of his class
and time. In 1851, determined to "escape my
debts and, more than anything else, my hab-
its," he enlisted in the Army as a gentleman-
volunteer, and went to the Caucasus. While at
Tiflis, preparing for his examinations as a
cadet, he wrote the first portion of the trilogy,
Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth, in which he
celebrated the happiness of "being with Na-
ture, seeing her, communing with her." He al-
so began The Cossacks with the intention of
showing that culture is the enemy of happi-
ness. Although continuing his army life, he
gradually came to realize that "a military ca-
reer is not for me, and the sooner I get out of
it and devote myself entirely to literature the
better." His Sevastopol Sketches (1855) were
so successful that Czar Nicholas issued special
orders that he should be removed from a post
of danger.

Returning to St. Petersburg, Tolstoy was re-
ceived with great favor in both the official and
literary circles of the capital. He soon became

interested in the popular progressive move-
ment of the time, and in 1857 he decided to go
abroad and study the educational and munici-
pal systems of other countries. That year, and
again in 1860, he traveled in Europe. At Yas-
naya Polyana in 1861 he liberated his serfs and
opened a school, established on the principle
that "everything which savours of compulsion
is harmful." He started a magazine to promote
his notions on education and at the same time
served as an official arbitrator for grievances
between the nobles and the recently emanci-
pated serfs. By the end of 1863 he was so ex-
hausted that he discontinued his activities and
retired to the steppes to drink koumis for his
health.

Tolstoy had been contemplating marriage
for some time, and in 1862 he married Sophie
Behrs, sixteen years his junior, and the daugh-
ter of a fashionable Moscow doctor. Their
early married life at Yasnaya Polyana was
tranquil. Family cares occupied the Countess,
and in the course of her life she bore thirteen
children, nine of whom survived infancy. Yet
she also acted as a copyist for her husband,
who after their marriage turned again to writ-
ing. He was soon at work upon "a novel of
the i8io's and *2o's" which absorbed all his
time and effort. He went frequently to Mos-
cow, "studying letters, diaries, and traditions"
and "accumulated a whole library" of histori-
cal material on the period. He interviewed
survivors of the battles of that time and trav-
eled to Borodino to draw up a map of the
battleground. Finally, in 1869, after his work
had undergone several changes in conception
and he had "spent five years of uninterrupted
andjgxceptionally strenuous labor Tnnierthe
IbesfcondUtions of life/' he published War and
Peace. Its appearance immediately established
Tolstoy's reputation, and in the judgment of
Turgenev, the acknowledged dean of Russian
letters, gave him "first place among all our
contemporary writers."

The years immediately following the com-
pletion of War and Peace were pa**efl in a
great variety of occupations, none of which
Tohtoy found satisfying. He tried busying

VI

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

himself with the affairs of his estate, under-
took the learning of Greek to read the ancient
classics, turned again to education, wrote a
series of elementary school books, and served
as school inspector. With much urging from
his wife and friends, he completed Anna Kare-
nina, which appeared serially between 1875
and 1877. Disturbed by what he considered his
unreflective and prosperous existence, Tolstoy
became increasingly interested in religion. At
first he turned to the orthodox faith of the
people. Unable to find rest there, he began a
detailed examination of religions, and out of
his reading, particularly of the Gospels, gradu-
ally evolved his own personal doctrine.

Following his conversion, Tolstoy adopted
a new mode of life. He dressed like a peasant,
devoted much of his time to manual work,
learned shoemaking, and followed a vegetari-
an diet. With the exception of his youngest
daughter, Alexandra, Tolstoy's family re-
mained hostile to his teaching. The breach be-
tween him and his wife grew steadily wider.
In 1879 he wrote the Kreutzer Sonata in which
he attacked the normal state of marriage and
extolled a life of celibacy and chastity. In 1881
he divided his estate among his heirs and, a
few years later, despite the opposition of his
wife, announced that he would forego royal-
ties on all the works published after his con-
version.

Tolstoy made no attempt at first to propa-
gate his religious teaching, although it attracted

many followers. After a visit to the Moscow
slums iri 1881, he became concerned with social
conditions, and he subsequently aided the suf-
ferers of the famine by sponsoring two hun-
dred and fifty relief kitchens. After his meet-
ing and intimacy with Chertkov, "Tolstoyism"
began to develop as an organized sect. Tol-
stoy's writings became almost exclusively pre-
occupied with religious problems. In addition
to numerous pamphlets and plays, he wrote
IV hat is Art? (1896), in which he explained
his new aesthetic theories, and Hadji-Murad,
(1904), which became the favorite work of his
old age. Although his activities were looked
upon with increasing suspicion by the official
authorities, Tolstoy escaped official censure
until 1901, when he was excommunicated by
the Orthodox Church. His followers were f re-
quently subjected to persecution, and many
were either banished or imprisoned.

Tolstoy's last years were embittered by
mounting hostility within his own household.
Although his personal life was ascetic, he felt
the ambiguity of his position as a preacher of
poverty living on his great estate. Finally, at
the age of eighty-two, with the aid of his daugh-
ter, Alexandra, he fled from home. His health
broke down a few days later, and he was re-
moved from the train to the station-master's
hut at Astopovo, where he died, November 7,
1910. He was buried at Yasnaya Polyana, in
the first public funeral to be held in Russia
without religious rites.

CONTEXTS

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE v

The Principal Characters in War and Peace

Arranged in Family Groups xv

Dates of Principal Historical Events xvi

BOOK ONE

1-5. Anna Sche'rer's soiree i

6-3. Pierre at Prince Andrew's 1 1

9. Pierre at Anatole Kurdgin's. D61ok-

hov's bet 15

10. A name day at the Rost6vs' 18

11-1*4. Natasha and Boris 20

15. Anna Mikhdylovna and Bon's go to the

dying Count Beziikhov's 26

16. Pierre at his father's house; talks with

Boris 27

17. Countess Rost6va and Anna Mikhay-

lovna 30

18-19. Dinner at the Rost6vs'. Marya Dmitri-

cvna 31

20. S6nyaand Natasha. Nicholassings.The

Daniel Cooper 35

21. At Count Bczukhov's. Prince Vasfli and

Catiche 37

22-23. Anna Mikhdylovna and Pierre at Count

Bczukhov's 41

24. Anna Mikhdylovna and Catiche strug-

gle for the inlaid portfolio 45

25. Bald Hills. Prince N. A. Bolkonski.

Princess Mary's correspondence with

Julie Kardgina 47

26-27. Prince Andrew at Bald Hills 51

28. Prince Andrew leaves to join the army.

Princess Mary gives him an icon 55

BOOK TWO

1-2. Review near Braunau. Zherk6v and
D61okhov 60

3. Kutuzov and an Austrian general. ^Le

malheureux Mack. Zherk6v's fool-
ery 65

4. Nicholas and Denisov. Telydnin and

the missing purse 68

5. Nicholas in trouble with his fellow of-

ficers 72

6-8. Crossing the Enns. Burning the bridge.

Rost6v's baptism of fire 74

9. Prince Andrew sent with dispatches to

the Austrian court. The Minister of

War 81

10. Prince ( Andrew and Billbin 83

1 1. Hippolyte Kuragin and les ndtres 86

12. Prince Andrew received by the Emper-

or Francis. Bilibin's story of the Tha-
bor Bridge 87

13-14. Prince Andrew returns to Kutuzov.
Bagrati6n sent to Hollabriinn.
Napoleon's letter to Murat 89

15. Prince Andrew reports to Bagrati6n.

Captain Tiishin. Soldiers at the front.
D61okhov talks to a French grena-
dier 94

16. Prince Andrew surveys the position.

The first shot 96

17. Bagration in action. Tiishin's battery.

Setting Schon Grabern on fire 97
18-19. Battle scenes. Quarrelsome command-
ers. Nicholas injured 99

20. Panic. Timokhirfs counterattack. D6-

lokhov's insistence. Tiishin's battery.
Prince Andrew sent to order him to
retreat 104

2 1 . Withdrawal of the forces. Nicholas rides

on a gun carriage. Tiishin called to
account by Bagrati6n. Prince Andrew
defends him. Nicholas' depression

106

BOOK THREE

1-2. Prince Vasfli and Pierre. A soiree at
AnnaPa vlovna's. IMene'sname day.
Pierre's marriage 1 1 1

3. Prince Vasili and Anatole visit Prince

N. A. Bolkonski. Princess Mary's ap-
pearance 119

4. Lise, Mademoiselle Bourienne, Mary,

Anatole, and old Bolkonski 122

5. Her father's opposition to Mary's

marrying. She finds Mademoiselle
Bourienne and Anatole in the con-
servatory; declines marriage 126

6. A letter from Nicholas. S6nya and Na-

tasha 128

7. Nicholas visits Boris and Berg in camp.

Nicholas tells of Schon Grabern. His
encounter with Prince Andrew 131

8. The Emperor reviews the army. En-

thusiasm of Nicholas 135

9. Boris visits Prince Andrew; at Olimitz.

Prince Dolgoriikov 137

vn

V1U

CONTENTS

10. Nicholas not in the action at Wischau.

The Emperor. Nicholas' devotion to
him 140

11. Preparations for action. Dolgorukov's

opinion of Napoleon and of his posi-
tion. Kutuzov's depression 142

1 2. The Council of War. Weyrother's plans.

Kutiizov sleeps. Prince Andrew's re-
flections 144

13. Rost6v at the front. Visit of Bagrati6n

and Dolgonikov. Rost6v sent to rec-
onnoiter. Napoleon's proclamation

M7

14-19. Battle of Austerlitz. Prince Andrew
badly wounded 150

BOOK FOUR

1. Nicholas home on leave 165

2. Preparations for Club dinner 168

3. The dinner. Bagration as guest of

honor 1 7 1

4. Pierre challenges D61okhov 173

5. The duel 176

6. Pierre's separation from Hlene 177

7. Andrew considered dead 1 79

8. Lise's confinement. Andrew arrives 180

9. Death of Lise 182

10. Denfsov and D61okhov at the Rost6vs'

83

11. S6nya declines D61okhov's proposal

12. logel's ball. Denfsov's mazurka 186
13-14. Nicholas loses 43,000 rubles to D61ok-

hov 188

15. Nicholas at home. Natdsha sings 190

16. Nicholas tells his father of his losses.

Denfsov proposes to Natdsha 192

BOOK FIVE

1-2. Pierre meets Bazde"ev 194

3-4. Pierre becomes a Freemason 198

5. Pierre repulses Prince Vasfli 203

6. A soiree at Anna Pdvlovna's. Hlene

takes up Borfs 204

7. Hippolyte at Anna Pdvlovna's 206

8. Old Bolk6nski as commander in chief

of the conscription. Andrew's anx-
iety. A letter from his father 206

9. Bilfbin's letter about the campaign.

The baby convalescent 208

10. Pierre goes to Kiev and visits his estates.

Obstacles to the emancipation of his
serfs 211

11. Pierre visits Prince Andrew 213

12. Pierre's and Prince Andrew's talk on

the ferry raft 216

13. "God's folk" at Bald Hills 218

14. Old Bolk6nski and Pierre 220

15. Nicholas rejoins his regiment. Shortage

of provisions 221

16. Denfsov seizes transports of food, gets

into trouble, is wounded 223

17-18. Nicholas visits Denfsov in hospital 225

19. Borfs at Tilsit. Nicholas' inopportune

visit 228

20. Nicholas tries to present Denfsov's peti-

tion at the Emperor's residence, but
fails 230

21. Napoleon and Alexander as allies.

Perplexity of Nicholas. "Another
bottle" 232

BOOK SIX

1-3. Prince Andrew's occupations at Bogu-
charovo. His drive through the for-
estthe bare oak. His visit to the Ros-
t6vs at Otrddnoe. Overhears Natd-
sha's talk with S6nya. Return through
the forest the oak in leaf. He de-
cides to go to Petersburg 235

4-6. Sperdnski, Arakcheev, and Prince An-
drew 238

7-8. Pierre and the Petersburg Freemasons.
He visits Joseph Alex^evich. Recon-
ciliation with H^lene 243
9. H^lene's social success. Her salon and
relations with Borfs 247

10. Pierre's diary 248

11. The Rost6vs in Petersburg. Berg

engaged to Vera and demands her
dowry 250

12. Natdsha and Borfs 251

13. Natdsha's bedtime talks with her

mother 252

14-17. Natdsha's first grand ball. She dances
with Prince Andrew 254

18. Bitski calls on Prince Andrew. Dinner
at Sperdnski's. Prince Andrew's dis-
illusionment with him and his re-
forms 260
49. Prince Andrew calls on the Rost6vs.
Natdsha's effect on him 262
20-21. The Bergs' evening party 263

22. Natdsha consults her mother. Prince

Andrew confides in Pierre 265

23. Prince N. Bolk6nski insists on post-

ponement of his son's marriage. Na-
tdsha's distress at Prince Andrew's
absence. He returns and they become
engaged 267

24. Prince Andrew's last days with Na-

tdsha 270

CONTENTS

25. Prince N. Bolk6nski's treatment of

Mary. Her letter to Julie Kirdgina

271

26. Prince N. Bolk6nski threatens to marry

Mile Bourienne 273

BOOK SEVEN

1. Nicholas Rost6v returns home on leave.

His doubts about Natasha's engagement

275

2. Nicholas settles accounts with Mftenka

277

3. Nicholas decides to go hunting 278

4. The wolf hunt begins 279

5. The wolf is taken 281

6. The fox hunt and the huntsmen's quarrel.

Ildgin's courtesy. Chasing a hare. Ru-
gdy's triumph 284

7. An evening at "Uncle's." The balaldyka.

Natasha's Russian dance 287

8. His mother urges Nicholas to marry Julie

Karagina, and grumbles at S6nya 291

9. Christmas at Otradnoe. Natasha is de-

pressed and capricious 292

10. Nicholas, Natasha, and S6nya indulge in

recollections. Dimmlcr plays and Nata-
sha sings. The maskers. A troyka drive to
the Melyuk6vs' 294

11. At Melyuk6vka. Sonya goes to the barn to

try her fortune 298

12. The drive home. Natasha and S6nya try

the future with looking glasses 300

13. His mother opposes Nicholas' wish to

marry S6nya, and he returns to his regi-
ment. Natasha becomes restless and im-
patient for Prince Andrew's return 301

BOOK EIGHT

1. Pierre's life in Moscow. Asks himself "What

for?" and "Why?" 303

2. Prince N. Bolk6nski in Moscow. His harsh

treatment of Princess Mary. She teaches
little Nicholas. The old prince and Mile
Bourienne 305

3. Dr. Mdtivier treated as a spy by the old

prince. The dinner on the prince's name
day 307

4. Pierre and Princess Mary discuss Boris and

Natdsha 309

5. Boris and Julie. Their melancholy. Boris

proposes and is accepted 3 1 1

6. Count IlydRost6v,Natdsha,andS6nyastay

with Mdrya Dmftrievna in Moscow 313

7. Count Rost6v and Natdsha call on Prince

N. Bolk6nski.They are received by Prin-
cess Mary. Prince Bolk6nski's strange

ix

behavior. Mary and Natisha dislike one
another 314

8. The Rost6vs at the Opera. Hlne in the

next box 316

9. The Opera described. Anatole and Pierre

arrive. Natdsha makes Hlne's ac-
quaintance. Duport dances 318

10. Hdtene presents Anatole to Natdsha. He

courts her 320

11. Anatole and D61okhov in Moscow 321

12. Sunday at Mdrya Dmftrievna's. Hlne

calls and invites the Rost6vs to hear Mile
George recite. She tells Natdsha that
Anatole is in love with her 322

13. The reception at Hlne's. Mile George.

Anatole dances with Natdsha and makes
love to her. Her perplexity as to her
own feelings 324

14. Princess Mary's letter to Natdsha, who also

receives one from Anatole 325

15. S6nya finds Anatole's letter and remon-

strates with Natdsha, who writes to Prin-
cess Mary breaking off her engagement
with Prince Andrew. A party at the
Kardgins'. Anatole meets Natdsha. She
is angry with S6nya, who resolves to pre-
vent her elopement 327

16. Anatole at Dolokhov's. Balagd 329

17. Anatole sets off to abduct Natdsha, but en-

counters Mdrya Dmftrievna's footman

332

18. Mdrya Dmitrievna reproaches Natdsha.

Count Ilyd Rost6v is kept in ignorance

333

19. Pierre at Mdrya Dmftrievna's. He tells Na-

tdsha that Anatole is married 334

20. Pierre's explanation with Anatole 336

21. Natdsha tries to poison herself. Prince An-

drew returns to Moscow and Pierre talks
to him 337

22. Pierre and Natdsha. He tells her of his de-

votion. The great comet of 1812 339

BOOK NINE

1. The year 1812. Rulers and generals are

"history's slaves" 342

2. Napoleon crosses the Niemen and sees

Polish Uhlans drowned swimming the
Vfliya 344

3. Alexander I at Vflna. The ball at Count

Bennigsen's. Borfs overhears the Em-
peror speaking to Balashev and learns
that the French have crossed the fron-
tier. Alexander's letter to Napole6n 346

4. Balashev's mission to Napoleon, He meets

Murat, "the King of Naples" 347

CONTENTS

5. Balashev taken to Davout, who treats him

badly, but he is at last presented to Na-
poleon in Vilna 349

6. Balashe'v's interview with Napoleon 350

7. Balashev dines with Napoleon 354

8. Prince Andrew on Kutiizov's staff in Mol-

davia. He is sent to Barclay's army. Visits
Bald Hills. His talks with his father and
Princess Mary 355

9. Prince Andrew in the army at Drissa. Eight

conflicting parties 358

10. Prince Andrew is introduced to Pfuel 361

1 1. An informal Council of War. Pfuel's dog-

matism 363

it. Nicholas writes to Sdnya. He and Ilyin in

a storm 365

13. Mary Hendrfkhovna. The officers and the

doctor 367

14. Courage. Rost6v goes into action at Ostr6-

vna 369

15. Rost6v's hussars charge the French dra-

goons. He wounds and captures* a pris-
oner 370

16. Natasha's illness. The use of doctors 372

1 7. Natasha and Pierre. She prepares for com-

munion with Bel6va. The church serv-
ice. Her health improves 373

18. Natasha attends Mass and hears the spe-

cial prayer for victory 374

19. Pierre's relation to life altered by his feel-

ing for Natasha. 666. Napoleon as Anti-
christ. Pierre's belief that he is destined
to end Napoleon's power. He gets news
for the Rost6vs 377

10. Pierre at the Rost6vs'. Natasha again takes
up her singing. S6nya reads Alexander's
manifesto. Pe"tya declares that he will
enter the army. Natasha realizes that
Pierre loves her. He decides to cease go-
ing to the Rostovs' 379

at. Pe"tya goes to the Kremlin to see the Em-
peror. He gets crushed. He secures a bis-
cuit thrown by the Emperor after din-
ner 382

22. Assembly of gentry and merchants at the

Sloboda Palace. A limited discussion.
Pierre's part in it 384

23. Count Rostopchfn's remarks. The offer

made by the Moscow nobility and gen-
try. The Emperor's speech. Pierre offers
to supply and maintain a thousand men

387

BOOK TEN

i. Reflections on the campaign of 1812. The
course of events was fortuitous and un-
foreseen by either side 389

2. Prince N. Bolk6nski and his daughter. His

fcreak with Mile Bourienne. Mary's cor-
respondence with Julie. The old prince
receives a letter from Prince Andrew
but does not grasp its meaning and con-
fuses the present invasion with the Pol-
ish campaign of 1807 391

3. The old prince sends Alpdtych to Smolensk

with various commissions, and does not
know where to have his bed placed. He
remembers Prince Andrew's letter and
reads and understands it 393

4. Princess Mary sends a letter to the Gover-

nor at Smolensk. Alpdtych sets off on
August 4; reaches Smolensk that eve-
ning and stays at Ferapontov's inn. Fir-
ing heard outside the town. Next day he
does his business, but finds alarm spread-
ing, and is advised by the Governor that
the Bolkonskis had better go to Mos-
cow. The town bombarded. Ferap6ntov's
cook has her thigh broken by a shell.
Retreating soldiers loot Ferapontov's
shop and he declares he will set his
place on fire himself and not leave it
to the French. Alpatych meets Prince
Andrew, who has an encounter with
Berg 395

5. Prince Andrew passing Bald Hills with his

regiment. The retreat: heat and terrible
dust. He rides over to the house. The
little girls and the plums. The soldiers
bathe in a pond. "Cannon fodder." Ba-
gration's letter to Arakche'ev 399

6. Matter and form. Anna Pdvlovna's and

He*lene's rival salons. Prince Vasfli's
opinion of Kutiizov 403

7. Napoleon orders an advance on Moscow.

Napoleon's conversation with Lavrush-
ka 405

8. Prince Nicholas Bolkonski has a paralytic

stroke and is taken to Bogucharovo.
Princess Mary decides that they must
move on to Moscow. Her last interview
with her father. His affection for her.
His death 406

9. Character of the Bogucharovo peasantry

and the baffling undercurrents in the
life of the Russian people. The village
Elder, Dron. Alpatych talks to him. The
peasants decide not to supply horses or
carts 410

10. Mile Bourienne advises Princess Mary to

appeal to the French for protection.
Princess Mary speaks to Dron 412

1 1 . Princess Mary addresses the peasants. They

CONTENTS

distrust her and refuse to leave Bogucha-

rovo f 415

i a. Princess Mary at night recalls her last sight

of her father 4 1 6

13. Nicholas and Ilyfn ride to Bogucharovo.

They are asked by Alpatych to protect
the princess. Nicholas makes her ac-
quaintance and places himself at her
service 417

14. Nicholas calls the peasants to account and

intimidates them. Carts and horses are
provided for Princess Mary's departure.
Princess Mary feels that she loves him

419

15. Prince Andrew goes to headquarters and

meets Denfsov, who wants guerrilla
troops to break the French line of
communication. Kutuzov's reception of
them. He transacts business 421

16. The priest's wife offers Kutuzov "bread

and salt." He has a further talk with
Prince Andrew, who declines a place on
the staff. Patience and Time. Prince An-
drew's confidence in Kutuzov 424

17. Moscow after the Emperor's visit. Rostop-

chin's broadsheets. Julie's farewell wi-
re" c. Forfeits for speaking French. Pierre
hears of Princess Mary's arrival in Mos-
cow 426

18. Rostopchm's broadsheets. Pierre and the

eldest princess. Leppich's balloon. A
public flogging. Pierre leaves Moscow
for the army 428

19. Senselessness of the battle of Borodin6,

and erroneousness of the historians' ac-
counts of it. Where and how it was fought

43

20. Pierre encounters cavalry advancing and

carts of wounded retiring. He talks to
an army doctor. Pierre looks for the
"position" occupied by the army. Peas-
ant militia digging entrenchments 432

21. Pierre ascends a knoll at G6rki, surveys

the scene, and inquires as to the "posi-
tion" occupied* A procession carrying
the "Smolensk Mother of God." The
reverence of the crowd and of Kutuzov

434

22. Boris meets Pierre. Dolokhov makes his

way to Kutuzov. Kutuzov notices Pierre.
D61okhov asks Pierre to be reconciled

43 6

23. Pierre rides to the left flank with Bennig-

sen, who explains the "position" in a way
Pierre does not understand and changes
one of Kutiizov's dispositions 438

xi

24. Prince Andrew's reflections on life and

death. Pierre comes to see him 439

25. Tim6khin's opinion of Kutuzov. Prince

Andrew on Barclay de Tolly. War and
chess. The spirit of the army. Wolzogen
and Clausewitz. "The war must be ex-
tended widely." Pierre understands the
importance of this war. "Not take pris-
oners." What is war? Prince Andrew
thinks of Natlsha 440

26. De Beausset brings a portrait of the "King

of Rome" to Napoleon. Napoleon's
proclamation 444

27. Napoleon's dispositions for the battle of

Borodin6. They were not carried out

445

28. Napoleon's cold. Why the battle had to be

fought 447

29. Napoleon's talk to de Beausset and Rapp.

The game begins 448

30. Pierre views the battlefield from the knoll

at Gorki 450

31. Pierre at the Borodin6 bridge. Under fire.

Goes to Ravski's Redoubt. His horse
wounded under him. The Ravski Re-
doubt. The young officer. Pierre is ac-
cepted at the redoubt as one of the fam-
ily. The flame of hidden fire in th men's
souls. Shortage of ammunition. Pierre
sees ammunition wagons blown up 451

32. The redoubt captured by the French.

Pierre's conflict with a French officer.
The redoubt retaken by the Russian*

455

33. The course of the battle. Difficulty of dis-

cerning what was going on. Things take
their own course apart from the orders
issued 456

34. Reinforcements. Belliard appeals to Na-

poleon. De Beausset proposes breakfast.
Friant's division sent in support. The
expected success not secured. Continu-
ous and useless slaughter 457

35. Kutuzov. His rebuke to Wolzogen. An or-

der of the day for an attack tomorrow.
The spirit of the army 459

36. Prince Andrew with the reserve under fire.

Hit by a bursting shell. Outside the
dressing station 461

37. The operating tent. Portion of Prince An-

drew's thighbone extracted. Anatole's
leg amputated. Prince Andrew pities
him 464

38. Napoleon is depressed. His mini and con-

science darkened. His calculation that
few Frenchmen perished in Russia 465

xii

CONTENTS

39. Appearance of the field at the end of the
battle. Doubts maturing in every soul.
Only a little further effort needed to
secure victory, but such effort impossi-
ble. Could Napoleon have used his Old
Guard? The Russians had gained a mor-
al victory 467

BOOK ELEVEN

1. Continuity of motion. Achilles and the

tortoise. The method of history; its
explanation of events compared with
explanations of the movement of a
locomotive 469

2. Summary of campaign before Boro-

dino and explanation of Kutuzov's
subsequent movements 470

3-4. Kutuzov and his generals at Pokl6nny
Hill. Council of War at Fill 472

5. The author's reflections on the aban-
donment of Moscow. Rostopchin's
conduct and that of private individ-
uals 475

6-7. Helene in Petersburg. Conversion to
I Catholicism and plans for remar-

riage 476

8-9. Pierre walks to Mozhdysk. His night
lodging there. His dream, and his
return to Moscow 480

10-11. Pierre at Rostopchin's. The affair of
Klyucharcv and Vercshchagin. Pierre
leaves home secretly 482

12-17. The Rost6vs: packing up and leaving
Moscow. They allow wounded offi-
cers to stay in their house and avail
themselves of their carts to leave
Moscow. Berg's wish to borrow a
cart. Natasha when leaving Moscow
sees and speaks to Pierre. Prince An-
drew travels in their train of vehicles

485

18. Pierre at Bazd^ev's house. He wears a

coachman's coat 496

19. Napoleon surveys Moscow from Pok-

16nny Hill. He awaits a deputation
of les boyars 497

20-23. Moscow compared to a queenless hive.
The army's departure. Looting by
Russian soldiers. The Moskvd bridge
blocked, and cleared by Erm61ov. A
brawl among workmen. Reading a
Rostopchfn broadsheet to a crowd.
Scene with the superintendent of
police 499

24-25. Rostopchfn. The killing of Vereshcha-
gin. The released lunatics. Rostop-

chfn's encounterwith Kutuzov at the
' bridge 505

26. The French enter Moscow. Shots from
the Kremlin gate. The Fire of Mos-
cow discussed 511

27-29. Pierre: his plan to kill Napoleon. Baz-
de*ev's drunken brother fires at Cap-
tain Ramballe, who regards Pierre
as a friend 513

30-32. The Rost6vs at My tfshchi. Natasha sees
Prince Andrew 521

33-34. Pierre sets out to meet Napoleon. He
saves a child, defends an Armenian
girl from a French soldier, and is ar-
rested as an incendiary 527

BOOK TWELVE

1-3. Anna PAvlovria's soiree. Talk of H-
lene's illness. The Bishop's letter.
Victory at Borodino reported. Death
of Helene. News of abandonment of
Moscow. Michaud's report 533

4-8. Nicholas sent to Voronezh. An evening
at the Governor's. Nicholas and
Princess Mary. A letter from Sonya

537

9-13. Pierre's treatment as a prisoner. He is
questioned by Davout. Shooting of
prisoners. Platon Karataev 547
14-16. Princess Mary goes to the Rost6vs' in
Yaroslavl. Prince Andrew's last days
and death 555

BOOK THIRTEEN
1-7. The cause of historical events. A sur-
vey of movements of the Russian
army after leaving Moscow. Napo-
leon's letter to Kutuzov. The camp
at Tarutino. Alexander's letters to
Kutuzov. Ermolov and others absent
when wanted. The battle postponed.
Kutuzov's wrath. The action next
day. Cossacks surprise Murat's army
and capture prisoners, guns, and
booty. Inactivity of the rest of the
army 563

8-10. Napoleon's measures. Proclamation in
Moscow. Effects of pillage on French
discipline 571

11-14. Pierre: four weeks in captivity. Kara-
taev and a French soldier. The French
leave Moscow. The drum. Pierre's
mental change; he recovers his grip
on life. Exit of troops and prisoners.
The road blocked. Pierre's reflec-
tions 575

CONTENTS

15-19. The Russian army. Dokhtiirov. News
of the French having left Moscow
reaches Kutiizov at night. His emo- 13-81.
tion. Cossacks nearly capture Napo-
leon at Malo-Yarosldvets. He retreats
by the Smolensk road. A third of his
army melts away before reaching Vy-
zma 582

BOOK FOURTEEN

1-2. National character of the war. A duel-

ist who drops his rapier and seizes a

cudgel. Guerrilla warfare. The spirit

of the army 588

3-11. The partisans or guerrillas. Denfsov,

D61okhov, P(hya Rost6v, and Tik-

hon. A French drummer boy. A visit

to the enemy's camp. Attack on a

French convoy. The death of Ptya

59

12-15. Pierre's journey among the prisoners.

Karatjiev. His story of the merchant.

His death. Pierre rescued 604

16-18. The French retreat. Berthier's report

to Napoleon. Their flight beyond

Smolensk 609

19. Why the French were not cut off by

the Russians 611

1-3.

4-5.

BOOK FIFTEEN

TheRostovs. Natasha's grief. The news
of Ptftya's death. Natdsha leaves with
Princess Mary for Moscow 614

Analysis of Kutiizov's movements 618
6~g. Kutiizov at Krdsnoe; his speech to the
army. Encampment for the night:
soldier scenes. Ramballe's appear-
ance with his orderly. The song of
Henri Quatre. 621

10-12. The crossing of the Berezina. Vflna.

1-4.

5-9-

* xiii

The Emperor Alexander. Kutiizov;
his failing health 626

Pierre. Illness and recovery at Orel.
His new attitude to life and his fel-
low men. His affairs. He goes to Mos-
cow; the town's animation and rapid
recovery. Pierre meets Natdsha at
Princess Mary's. Love 631

FIRST EPILOGUE
Discussion of forces operating in his-
tory. Chance and genius. The ideals
of glory and grandeur. Alexander's
renunciation of power. The purpose
of a bee 645

Death of old Count Rost6v. Nicholas
in retirement. His mother. His meet-
ing with Princess Mary. Their wed-
ding; estate management in the coun-
try; their family life. S6nya a sterile
flower. Denfsov.' Nicholas' name day

650

10-14. Natdsha's and Pierre's family life. His
return after a visit to Petersburg. The
old countess in decay. Conversation
about social tendencies, and indigna-
tion at reactionary trend of the gov-
ernment. Views of Pierre and Nich-
olas 659

15-16. The two married couples and their
mutual relations. Natasha's jealousy.
Young Nicholas Boik6nski's aspira-
tions 669

SECOND EPILOGUE
1-12. A general discussion on the historians'
study of human life, and on the diffi-
culty of defining the forces that move
nations. The problem of free will
and necessity 675

MAPS

I. Battle of Austerlitz 697

II. War of 1805 697

III. Advance and Retreat of Napoleon, 1812 698 8c 699

IV. Borodin6 698
V. Moscow 699

THE PRINCIPAL CHARACTERS ARRANGED
IN FAMILY GROUPS

THE BEZUKHOVS

Count Cyril Bezukhov, a wealthy nobleman of Catherine the Great's time
Pierre, his son, who, legitimized after his father's death, becomes Count

Bezukhov //* central character of the novel.
Princess Caliche, Pierre's cousin

THE RosT6vs

Count Ilyd Rost6v, a wealthy nobleman

Countess Nataly Rost6va, his wife

Count Nicholas Rostov, their elder son, who goes into the army as a cadet

Count Peter (Pdtya) Rostov, their younger son

Countess Ve"ra Rost6va, their elder daughter

Countess Nataly (Natdsha) Rost6va, their younger daughter, the central

female character

S6nya, a poor niece of the Rostovs
Lieutenant Alphonse Kdrlovich Berg, an officer who marries V&ra

THE BoLK6NSKis

Prince Nicholas Andre*evich Bolk6nski, a retired general

Prince Andrew Bolk6nski, his son, a member of Kutuzov's staff

Princess Mary Bolk6nskaya, his daughter

Princess Elisabeth (Lise) Bolkonskaya, Prince Andrew's wife, "the most

fascinating woman in Petersburg"
Prince Nicholas (Koko) Andrd-evich Bolk6nski, Prince Andrew's son

THE KURAGINS

Prince Vasfli Kurdgin, an elderly nobleman

Prince Hippolyte Kurdgin, his weak-minded elder son

Prince Anatole Kurdgin, his profligate younger son

Princess Hdlene Kunigina, his daughter, "the beautiful Helene"

THE DRUBETSK6YS

Princess Anna Mikhdylovna Drubetskdya, an impoverished noblewoman
Prince Boris (B6ry) Drubetskoy, her son, who enters the army
Julie Kardgina, an heiress t who later marries Boris

XV

DATES OF PRINCIPAL HISTORICAL EVENTS

1805

1807

1812

o. s.
Oct. 11

Oct. 23
Oct. 24
Oct. 28
Oct. 30

Nov. 4
Nov. 4
Noy. 19
Nov. 20

May 17
June 12
June 14
July 13
Aug. 4
Aug. 5
Aug. 7

Aug. 8
Aug. 10
Aug. 17

Aug. 17
Aug. 24
Aug. 26
Sept. i
Oct. 6

C * ft 7 '
and 8

Oct. 12
Oct. 21
Oct. 28-
Nov. 2
Nov. 4-8
Nov. 9
Nov. i4
Nov. 23
Dec. 6

N. s.
Oct. 23

Nov. 4
Nov. 5
Nov. 9
Nov. 11
Nov. 16
Nov. 16
Dec. i
Dec. 2

Jan. 27 Feb. 8
June 2 June 14
June 13 June 25

May 29
June 24
June 26
July 25
Aug. 16
Aug. 17
Aug. 19

Aug. 20
Aug. 22
Aug. 29

Aug. 29
Sept. 5
Sept. 7
Sept. 13
Oct. 18

Kutuzov inspects regiment near Braunau. Lc

malheureux Mack arrives
The Russian army crosses the Enns
Fight at Amstetten

The Russian army crosses the Danube
Defeats Mortier at Durrenstein
Napoleon writes to Murat from Schonbrunn
Battle of Schon Grabern
The Council of War at Ostralitz
Battle of Austerlitz

Battle of Preussisch-Eylau

Battle of Friedland

The Emperors meet at Tilsit

Napoleon leaves Dresden

Napoleon crosses the Niemen and enters Russia

Alexander sends Balashev to Napoleon

The Pavlograd hussars in action at Ostr6vna

Alpatych at Smolensk hears distant firing

Bombardment at Smolensk

Prince Nicholas Bolk6nski leaves Bald Hills for

Bogucharovo

Kutuzov appointed Commander in Chief
Prince Andrew's column abreast of Bald Hills
Kutuzov reaches Tsarevo-Zaymfshche and takes

command of the army
Nicholas Rost6v rides to Bogucharovo
Battle of the Shevardino Redoubt
Battle of Borodin6

Kutuzov orders retreat through Moscow
Battle of Tarutino

Battle of Malo-Yaroslavets
Cossacks harry the French at Vyazma
t SmoMnik

H

and 20

Oct. 24
Nov. 2
Nov. 9-
Nov. 14

Nov. i6-2oBattles at Krasnoe
Nov. 21 Ney, with rearguard, reaches Orsh
i6Nov. 26-28 Crossing of the Berezina

Dec. 5 Napoleon abandons the army at Smorg6ni
Dec. 18 He reaches Paris

XVI

Book One: 1805

CHAPTER I

WELL, PRINCE, so Genoa and Lucca are now
just family estates of the Buonapartes. But I
warn you, if you don't tell me that this means
war, if you still try to defend the infamies and
horrors perpetrated by that Antichrist I real-
ly believe he is Antichrist I will have nothing
more to do with you and you are no longer my
friend, no longer my 'faithful slave,' as you
call yourself! But how do you do? I see I have
frightened you sit down and tell me all the
news."

It was in July, 1805, and the speaker was the
well-known Anna Pdvlovna Sch^rer, maid of
honor and favorite of the Empress Marya Fe-
dorovna. With these words she greeted Prince
Vasili Kurdgin, a man of high rank and impor-
tance, who was the first to arrive at her recep-
tion. Anna Pdvlovna had had a cough for some
days. She was, as she said, suffering from la
grippe; grippe being then a new word in St.
Petersburg, used only by the elite.

All her invitations without exception, writ-
ten in French, and delivered by a scarlet-liver-
ied footman that morning, ran as follows:

"If you have nothing better to do, Count [or
Prince], and if the prospect of spending an
evening with a poor invalid is not too terrible,
I shall be very charmed to see you tonight be-
tween 7 and 10 Annette Sch^rer."

"Heavens! what a virulent attack!" replied
the prince, not in the least disconcerted by this
reception. He had just entered, wearing an em-
broidered court uniform, knee breeches, and
shoes, and had stars on his breast and a serene
expression on his flat face. He spoke in that
refined French in which our grandfathers not
only spoke but thought, and with the gentle,
patronizing intonation natural to a man of
importance who had grown old in society and
at court. He went up to Anna Pavlovna, kissed
her hand, presenting to her his bald, scented,
and shining head, and complacently seated
himself on the sofa.

"First of all, dear friend, tell me how you

are. Set your friend's mind at rest," said he
without altering his tone, beneath the polite-
ness and affected sympathy of which indiffer-
ence and even irony could be discerned.

"Can one be well while suffering morally?
Can one be calm in tirrfes like these if one has
any feeling?" said Anna Pdvlovna. "You are
staying the whole evening, I hope?"

"And the fete at the English ambassador's?
Today is Wednesday. I must put in an appear-
ance there," said the prince. "My daughter is
coming for me to take me there."

"I thought today's fete had been canceled.
I confess all these festivities and fireworks are
becoming wearisome."

"If they had known that you wished it, the
entertainment would have been put off," said
the prince, who, like a wound-up clock, by
force of habit said things he did not even wish
to be believed.

"Don't tease! Well, and what has been de-
cided about Novosiltsev's dispatch? You know
everything."

"What can one say about it?" replied the
prince in a cold, listless tone. "What has been
decided? They have decided that Buonaparte
has burnt his boats, and I believe that we are
ready to burn ours."

Prince Vastti always spoke languidly, like
an actor repeating a stale part. Anna Pdvlovna
Scherer on the contrary, despite her forty years,
overflowed with animation and impulsiveness.
To be an enthusiast had become her social vo-
cation and, sometimes even when she did not
feel like it, she became enthusiastic in order
not to disappoint the expectations of those
who knew her. The subdued smile which,
though it did not suit her faded features, al-
ways played round her lips expressed, as in a
spoiled child, a continual consciousness of her
charming defect, which she neither wished, nor
could, nor considered it necessary, to correct.

In the midst of a conversation on political
matters Anna Pdvlovna burst out:

"Oh, don't speak to me of Austria. Perhaps

WAR AND PEACE

I don't understand things, but Austria never
has wished, and does not wish, for war. She is
betraying us! Russia alone must save Europe.
Our gracious sovereign recognizes his high vo-
cation and will be true to it. That is the one
thing I have faith in! Our good and wonder-
ful sovereign has to perfonn the noblest role
on earth, and he is so virtuous and noble that
God will not forsake him. He will fulfill his
vocation and crush the hydra of revolution,
which has become more terrible than ever in
the person of this murderer and villain! We
alone must avenge the blood of the just one.
. . . Whom, I ask you, can we rely on? . . . Eng-
land with her commercial spirit will not and
cannot understand the Emperor Alexander's
loftiness of soul. She tias refused to evacuate
Malta. She wanted to find, and still seeks, some
secret motive in our actions. What answer did
Novosiltsev get? None. The English have not
understood and cannot understand the self-
abnegation of our Emperor who wants noth-
ing for himself, but only desires the good of
mankind. And what have they promised? Noth-
ing! And what little they have promised they
will not perform! Prussia has always declared
that Buonaparte is invincible and that all
Europe is powerless before him. . . . And I
don't believe a word that Hardenburg says,
or Haugwitz either. This famous Prussian neu-
trality is just a trap. I have faith only in God
and the lofty destiny of our adored monarch.
He will save Europe!"

She suddenly paused, smiling at her own
impetuosity.

"I think," said the prince with a smile, "that
if you had been sent instead of our dear
Wintzingerode you would have captured the
King of Prussia's consent by assault. You are
so eloquent. Will you give me a cup of tea?"

"In a moment. X propos"she added, becom-
ing calm again, "I am expecting two very in-
teresting men tonight, le Vicomte de Morte-
mart, who is connected with the Montmoren-
cys through the Rohans,oneof the best French
families. He is one of the genuine dmigrh, the
good ones. And also the Abbe* Morio. Do you
know that profound thinker? He has been re-
ceived by the Emperor. Had you heard?"

"I shall be delighted to meet them," said the
prince. "But tell me," he added with studied
carelessness as if it had only just occurred to
him, though the question he was about to ask
was the chief motive of his visit, "is it true that
the Dowager Empress wants Baron Funke to be
appointed first secretary at Vienna? The baron

by all accounts is a poor creature."

Prince Vasfli wished to obtain this post for
his son, but others were trying through the
Dowager Empress Mdrya Fedorovna to secure
it for the baron.

Anna Pdvlovna almost closed her eyes to in-
dicate that neither she nor anyone else had a
right to criticize what the Empress desired or
was pleased with.

"Baron Funke has been recommended to the
Dowager Empress by her sister," was all she
said, in a dry and mournful tone.

As she named the Empress, Anna Pdvlovna's
face suddenly assumed an expression of pro-
found and sincere devotion and respect min-
gled with sadness, and thisoccurred every time
she mentioned her illustrious patroness. She
added that Her Majesty had deigned to show
Baron Funke beaucoup d'estime, and again
her face clouded over with sadness.

The prince was silent and looked indiffer-
ent. But, with the womanly and courtierlike
quickness and tact habitual to her, Anna Pdv-
lovna wished both to rebuke him (for daring
to speak as he had done of a man recommended
to the Empress) and at the same time to con-
sole him, so she said:

"Now about your family. Do you know that
since your daughter came out everyone has
been enraptured by her? They say she is amaz-
ingly beautiful."

The prince bowed to signify his respect and
gratitude.

"I often think," she continued after a short
pause, drawing nearer to the prince and smil-
ing amiably at him as if to show that political
and social topics were ended and the time had
come for intimate conversation "I often think
how unfairly sometimes the joys of life are dis-
tributed. Why has fate given you two such
splendid children? I don't speak of Anatole,
your youngest. I don't like him," she added in
a tone admitting of no rejoinder and raising
her eyebrows. "Two such charming children.
And really you appreciate them less than any-
one, and so you don't deserve to have them."

And she smiled her ecstatic smile.

"I can't help it," said the prince. "Lavater
would have said I lack the bump of paternity."

"Don't joke; I mean to have a serious talk
with you. Do you know I am dissatisfied with
your younger son? Between ourselves" (and
her face assumed its melancholy expression),
"he was mentioned at Her Majesty's and you
were pitied. . . ."

The prince answered nothing, but she

BOOK ONE

looked at him significantly, awaiting a reply.
He frowned.

"What would you have me do?" he said at
last. "You know I did all a father could for
their education, and they have both turned
out fools. Hippolyte is at least a quiet fool, but
Anatole is an active one. That is the only dif-
ference between them." He said this smiling
in a way more natural and animated than
usual, so that the wrinkles round his mouth
very clearly revealed something unexpectedly
coarse and unpleasant.

"And why are children born to such men as
you? If you were not a father there would be
nothing I could reproach you with," said Anna
Pdvlovna, looking up pensively.

"I am your faithful slave and to you alone I
can confess that my children are the bane of
my life. It is the cross I have to bear. That is
how I explain it to myself. It can't be helped!"

He said no more, but expressed his resigna-
tion to cruel fate by a gesture. Anna Pdvlovna
meditated.

"Have you never thought of marrying your
prodigal son Anatole?" she asked. "They say
old maids have a mania for matchmaking, and
though I don't feel that weakness in myself as
yet, I know a little person who is very unhappy
with her father. She is a relation of yours,
Princess Mary Bolk6nskaya."

Prince Vasili did not reply, though, with the
quickness of memory and perception befitting
a man of the world, he indicated by a move-
ment of the head that he was considering this
information.

"Do you know," he said at last, evidently
unable to check the sad current of his thoughts,
"that Anatole is costing me forty thousand
rubles a year? And," he went on after a pause,
"what will it be in five years, if he goes on like
this?" Presently he added: "That's what we

fathers have to put up with Is this princess

of yours rich?"

"Her father is very rich and stingy. He lives
in the country. He is the well-known Prince
Bolk6nski who had to retire from the army un-
der the late Emperor, and was nicknamed 'the
King of Prussia.' He is very clever but eccen-
tric, and a bore. The poor girl is very unhappy.
She has a brother; I think you know him, he
married Lise Meinen lately. He is an aide-de-
camp of Kutiizov's and will be here tonight."

"Listen, dear Annette," said the prince, sud-
denly taking Anna Pdvlovna's hand and for
some reason drawing it downwards. "Arrange
that affair for me and I shall always be your

most devoted slave slaje with an /, as a village
elder of mine writes in his reports. She is rich
and of good family and that's all I want."

And with the familiarity and easy grace
peculiar to him, he raised the maid of honor's
hand to his lips, kissed it, and swung it to and
fro as he lay back in his armchair, looking in
another direction.

"Attendee" said Anna Pdvlovna, reflecting,
"I'll speak to Lise, young Bolk6nski's wife, this
very evening, and perhaps the thing can be
arranged. It shall be on your family's behalf
that I'll start my apprenticeship as old maid."

CHAPTER II

ANNA PAVLOVNA'S drawing room was gradually
filling. The highest Petersburg society was as-
sembled there: people differing widely in age
and character but alike in the social circle to
which they belonged. Prince Vasili's daughter,
the beautiful Hlne, came to take her father
to the ambassador's entertainment; she wore a
ball dress and her badge as maid of honor. The
youthful little Princess Bolkonskaya, known
as la femme la plus sSduisante de Pfaersbourg?
was also there. She had been married during
the previous winter, and being pregnant did
not go to any large gatherings, but only to small
receptions. Prince Vasfli's son, Hippolyte, had
come with Mortemart, whom he introduced.
The Abb6 Morio and many others had also
come.

To each new arrival Anna Pdvlovna safcl,
"You have not yet seen my aunt," or "You do
not know my aunt?" and very gravely con-
ducted him or her to a little old lady, wearing
large bows of ribbon in her cap, who had come
sailing in from another room as soon as the
guests began to arrive; and slowly turning her
eyes from the visitor to her aunt, Anna Pdv-
lovna mentioned each one's name and then
left them.

Each visitor performed the ceremony of
greeting this old aunt whom not one of them
knew, not one of them wanted to know, and
not one of them cared about; Anna Pdvlovna
observed these greetings with mournful and sol-
emn interest and silent approval. The aunt
spoke to each of them in the same words, about
their health and her own, and the health of
Her Majesty, "who, thank God, was better to-
day." And each visitor, though politeness pre-
vented his showing impatience, left the old
woman with a sense of relief at having per-
formed a vexatious duty and did not return to

1 The most fascinating woman in Petersburg.

WAR AND PEACE

her the whole evening.

The young Princess Bolk6nskaya had
brought some work in a gold-embroidered vel-
vet bag. Her pretty little upper lip, on which
a delicate dark down was just perceptible, was
too short for her teeth, but it lifted all the more
sweetly, and was especially charming when she
occasionally drew it down to meet the lower
lip. As is always the case with a thoroughly at-
tractive woman, her defectthe shortness of
her upperlip and her half-open mouth seemed
to be her own special and peculiar form of
beauty. Everyone brightened at the sight of
this pretty young woman, so soon to become
a mother, so full of life and health, and carry-
ing her burden so lightly. Old men and dull
dispirited young ones who looked at her, after
being in her company and talking to her a
litttle while, felt as if they too were becoming,
like her, full of life and health. All who talked
to her, and at each word saw her bright smile
and the constant gleam of her white teeth,
thought that they were in a specially amiable
mood that day.

The little princess went round the table
with quick, short, swaying steps, her workbag
on her arm, and gaily spreading out her dress
sat down on a sofa near the silver samovar, as
if all she was doing was a pleasure to herself
and to all around her. "I have brought my
work," said she in French, displaying her bag
and addressing all present. "Mind, Annette,
I hope you have not played a wicked trick on
me," she added, turning to her hostess. "You
wrote that it was to be quite a small reception,
and just see how badly I am dressed." And she
spread out her arms to show her short-waisted,
lace-trimmed, dainty gray dress, girdled with
a broad ribbon just below the breast.

"Soyez tranquille, Lise, you will always be
prettier than anyone else," replied Anna Pdv-
lovna.

"You know/' said the princess in the same
tone of voice and still in French, turning to a
general, "my husband is deserting me? He is
going to get himself killed. Tell me what this
wretched war is for?" she added, addressing
Prince Vasfli, and without waiting for an an-
swer she turned to speak to his daughter, the
beautiful Hlne.

"What a delightful woman this little prin-
cess isl" said Prince Vasili to Anna Pdvlovna.

One of the next arrivals was a stout, heavily
built young man with close-cropped hair, spec-
tacles, the light-colored breeches fashionable
at that time, a very high ruffle, and a brown

dress coat. This stout young man was an illegit-
imate son^of Count Bezukhov, a well-known
grandee of Catherine's time who now lay dy-
ing in Moscow. The young man had not yet
entered either the military or civil service, as
he had only just returned from abroad where
he had been educated, and this was his first ap-
pearance in society. Anna Pdvlovna greeted
him with the nod she accorded to the lowest
hierarchy in her drawing room. But in spite of
this lowest-grade greeting, a look of anxiety
and fear, as at the sight of something too large
and unsuited to the place, came over her face
when she saw Pierre enter. Though he was cer-
tainly rather bigger than the other men in the
room, her anxiety could only have reference
to the clever though shy, but observant and
natural, expression which distinguished him
from everyone else in that drawing room.

"It is very good of you, Monsieur Pierre, to
come and visit a poor invalid," said Anna Pdv-
lovna, exchanging an alarmed glance with her
aunt as she conducted him to her.

Pierre murmured something unintelligible,
and continued to look round as if in search of
something. On his way to the aunt he bowed
to the little princess with a pleased smile, as to
an intimate acquaintance.

Anna Pdvlovna's alarm was justified, for
Pierre turned away from the aunt without wait-
ing to hear her speech about Her Majesty's
health. Anna Pdvlovna in dismay detained
him with the words: "Do you know the Abbe*
Morio? He is a most interesting man."

"Yes, I have heard of his scheme for perpet-
ual peace, and it is very interesting but hardly
feasible."

"You think so?" rejoined Anna Pdvlovna in
order to say something and get away to attend
to her duties as hostess. But Pierre now com-
mitted a reverse act of impoliteness. First he
had left a lady before she had finished speak-
ing to him, and now he continued to speak to
another who wished to getaway. With his head
bent, and his big feet spread apart, he began
explaining his reasons for thinking the abbess
plan chimerical.

"We will talk of it later," said Anna Pdv-
lovna with a smile.

And having got rid of this young man who
did not know how to behave, she resumed her
duties as hostess and continued to listen and
watch, ready to help at any point where the
conversation might happen to flag. As the fore-
man of a spinning mill, when he has set the
hands to work, goes round and notices here a